These assumptions are based on the axioms or worldview the scientist is operating within.This worldview is the basis for an entire system of theories.It is from this field of study that fossils and artifacts are dated based on the perceived age of the geological layers in which they are located.
a popularly accepted “universal constant” even though the foundations on which it was based have been virtually removed.
These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer.
In the mid-18th century, the naturalist Mikhail Lomonosov suggested that Earth had been created separately from, and several hundred thousand years before, the rest of the universe. In 1779 the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment: He created a small globe that resembled Earth in composition and then measured its rate of cooling.
Comparing the mass and luminosity of the Sun to those of other stars, it appears that the Solar System cannot be much older than those rocks.
Calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions—the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the Solar System—are 4.567 billion years old, giving an age for the Solar System and an upper limit for the age of Earth.